Communicative activities at the English lessons

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Формирование коммуникативной компетенции на уроках английского языка

Ministry of education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Taraz State Pedagogical Institute

Department of foreign languages

Course paper

Theme: Communicative activities at the English lessons

Student: Togatay Aigerim

Scientific researcher: Nurmanalieva Leila

Group: FL – 13-1

Taraz 2015

Content

Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 3

I Theoretical aspects of the concept of "communicative activities"

1.1 Communicative activities and its components………………………. 7

1.2 Methods of formation and development of communicative

activities…………………………………………………………….... 8

II Practical aspects of realization of methods and ways of formation of

communicative activities

2.2 Lesson plan…………………………………………………………… 13

2.3 Practical activities………………....………………………………….. 15

Conclusion………………………………………....…………………………..... 17

Bibliography……………………………………...…………………………….. 19

Appendix............................................................................................................... 20

Introduction

Topicality

In this work I want to say about communicative activities and their components, methods of formation and about their development. Communicative activity – is the willingness and ability to interaction, verbal and non-verbal with other people. Therefore, the basis of all methods of communicative language teaching should be the ability to establish relations, to find successful forms of communication in any language. Foreign language, in this respect, to study harder, because students not always understand each other. The main principle of communicative - based learning is a speech activity. But to build and improve communicative activity should be a combination of all its components, namely:

Language competence - improvement of communicative skills in the four main types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading and writing);the ability to plan their speech and nonverbal behavior;

Language competence - systematization of previously learned material; the development of skills for handling language items in communicative purposes;

Socio-cultural competence - increase knowledge about socio-cultural specificity of English-speaking countries;

Compensatory competence - the further development of skills out of position in the shortage of linguistic resources in the acquisition and transfer of foreign-language information;

Educational-cognitive competence - the development of General and specific training skills that help to improve training activities for mastery , to satisfy with it's cognitive interests in other fields of knowledge.

There are some methods and games. The method of empathy (to feel) meaning "perception" of a person in the state of another object, "moving" students in studying the objects of the world, an attempt to feel and experience it from the inside. For instance, get into the essence of a tree, cats, clouds and other educational items. The method of “Mind-Map” (memory Card) is a simple technology to record my thoughts, ideas, conversations.

Communicative activities is useful for students. There are a lot of activities. One of the reasons that discussion fail is that students are reluctant to give an opinion in front of the whole class, particularly if they cannot think of anything to say and are not, anyway, confident of the language they might use to say it. The other popular kind of activity is the prepared talk where a students make a presentation on a topic own choice. Prepared talks represent a defined and useful speaking genre, and if properly organized, can be extremely interesting for both speaker and listeners. Questionnaires are useful because, by being pre-planned, they ensure that both questioner and respondent have something to say to each other. Next one is role – plays they are effective when they open-ended. So that different people have different views of what the outcome should be, and a consensus has to be reached. In the second part I wrote about experiment which was pursued in the classes of not in-depth of study.

We have chosen the theme communicative activities at the English lessons to develop pupils speaking and other important skills .

The aim: is to determine the most effective methods and ways of formation of communicative activity of students at lessons of a foreign language.

To reach this aim we have set forward the following objectives:

1. To study and analyze the literature on the problem under study.

2. To reveal the essence and give a meaningful description of the concept of

"communicative activity".

3. To determine the degree of influence of intersubject communications on the development of communicative activities.

4. To identify the most effective ways and methods of formation of communicative

activities.

5. Implement the most effective methods and ways of formation and development

of communicative activity.

The object of investigation: pedagogical process of the communicative education of

pupils at lessons of a foreign language.

The subject of investigation: methods and ways of formation and development of communicative activity.

Hypothesis is postulated: forming communicative activities of students will be effective, if in the process of solving design problems at the lessons of English teacher:

- diagnose the level of development of communicative activity of students ;

- selects the project objectives that contribute to the formation of skills to communicate, negotiate with peers, to present and evaluate the results of the joint design;

- use of different types of project objectives: educational, reflective, research, creative.

The structure of this course paper includes introduction, theoretical aspect, practical aspect ,appendix, bibliography, conclusion.

Introduction includes about communicative activities and their components, methods of formation and about their development. In the theoretical part we have told about communicative activities and their components. Methods of formation and development of communicative activities. In the practical part we were given lesson plan and practical activities.

The practical value of my research is that the results, conclusions and generalizations can be used in the planning and content of the methodical work of students to improve the quality. The criteria and levels of formation of communicative activities can be used in diagnosis and the organization.

The theoretical value of my research is that the research results can be used at lessons of a foreign language for further development of communicative activities and contribute to better learning. We compared two groups, one group control and the second experimental. In the control group lesson was conducted in the usual

manner in the experimental group by using methods and means of formation of communicative activities. From this result we can conclude that the average level of knowledge in the experimental group increased, and this fact in turn speaks about the effectiveness of these methods and ways of formation of communicative competence at foreign language lessons.

I Theoretical aspects of the "communicative activities "

1.1 Communicative activities and its components

Changes taking place today in public relations, communication media (use of new information technologies) require increasing communicative activity of students, improvement of their philological training, so the priority importance acquired the English language as a means of communication. If other objects in the selection of the content from the Arsenal of science come from the implementation of General educational and educational tasks, in foreign language it is necessary to proceed from the practical problems – ability to communicate well. So comprehensive and educational objectives are subordinate to practical and solved in the implementation of the act communicative activities on one level or another, that is, the ability to engage in intercultural communication. The whole process of learning is subordinate to the main task – the formation of communicative activities.

Communicative activity – is the willingness and ability to interaction, verbal and non-verbal (facial expressions, body language) with other people. Therefore, the basis of all methods of communicative language teaching should be the ability to establish relations, to find successful forms of communication in any language. It is hard to do even for the study of the Russian language, when the thoughts and actions of participants in the communication understand each other. Foreign language, in this respect, to study harder, because students not always understand each other.

Therefore, the main principle of communicative-based learning is a speech activity. But to build and improve communicative activity should be a combination of all its components, namely:

language competence - improvement of communicative skills in the four main types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading and writing);the ability to plan their speech and nonverbal behavior;

language competence - systematization of previously learned material; the development of skills for handling language items in communicative purposes;

socio-cultural competence - increase knowledge about socio-cultural specificity of English-speaking countries;

compensatory competence - the further development of skills out of position in the shortage of linguistic resources in the acquisition and transfer of foreign-language information;

educational-cognitive competence - the development of General and specific training skills that help to improve training activities for mastery , to satisfy with it's cognitive interests in other fields of knowledge.

1.2 Methods of formation and development of communicative activities

Main methods:

Teaching methods, the application of which is always created by the students of educational production: an idea, a hypothesis, textual artwork, painting, crafts, plan their classes, etc. are called heuristic.

The method of empathy (to feel) meaning "perception" of a person in the state of another object, "moving" students in studying the objects of the world, an attempt to feel and experience it from the inside. For instance, get into the essence of a tree, cats, clouds and other educational items. At the moment surviving disciple asks questions to the object itself, trying on the sensual level to perceive, to understand, to see the answers. Born with the thoughts, feelings, sensations and there is an educational product the student, which can then be expressed in oral, written, symbolic form.

Example:

- Teacher: Imagine yourself that you are ‘Tornado”. How can you describe yourself, what are your feelings? Name your adjectives, verbs, your favourite season, places you occur, your weather.

- Student: — I am Tornado. I am the most terrible of all storms. I am dangerous, violent, strong, cruel, noisy and destructive. I destroy houses, carry away cars and telephone boxes. I occur in the springs, throughout the world, but mostly in the United States, especially in the central states. I occur in the afternoon or in the early evening in a hot day. Large clouds appear in the sky. They become darker and darker. The sounds of thunder, bright flashes of lighting! I form a funnel and begin to twist. My funnel touches the ground, it picks up everything it can.

The method of “Mind-Map” (memory Card) is a simple technology to record my thoughts, ideas, conversations. The entry is fast, associative. Subject - in the center. First, there is a word, idea, thought. There is a flow of ideas, their number is unlimited, they are all recorded, begin to write them down from the top left and finish bottom right. The method is an individual product of one person or one group. Expresses individual capabilities, creates a space for the manifestation of creative abilities.

The possibility of using “Mind-Map”

When ordering, repetition of material;

When working with text;

The repetition at the beginning of class;

When introduced into the subject;

When collecting the necessary language material;

When you control.


The main ways of development of all components of communicative activity.

1. Training is provided through the following types: communication games;

Communication games:

· picture gap (students have almost the same image, some images are different, and differences need to detect through the questions without seeing pictures of the partner - matching tasks);

· ext gap (students have similar texts or fragments of one text per student, are absent in the text of another student, and the lack of information needed to fill - jig-saw reading);

· knowledge gap (one student has information that is not available to another, and it must be fill complete-the-table tasks);

· belief gap (students have different beliefs, and the need to develop a common opinion); reasoning-gap (in pupils have different evidence that it is important to collect together and compare).

2. Communicative stimulations in role-plays and problem-solving :

· role-playing game (assumes the presence of a certain number of characters, as well as playing a problem situation in which the players operate. Each participant in the course of the game organizes its behavior depending on the behavior of partners and their communicative purposes. The outcome of the game should be the resolution of the conflict.)

· debates (is a form of dispute as a verbal competition. This exchange of views in respect to any subject matter with the aim of achieving a unity of views on this subject. A prerequisite for the discussion is the existence of any disputed issue. The final decision of this matter and is produced during the discussion. For successful conduct of the participants must have knowledge of the subject matter, to have your own opinion on the matter)

· round tables (represents the exchange of views on any issue, problem, interest of the participants of communication. Participating in the round table, student speak on their own behalf. Issues discussed at the "round table", can be quite diverse: social, cross-cultural, moral and ethical. Participation in the round table requires students to have a high enough level of language proficiency and the availability of specific knowledge on the problem.)

· sketches (it's a short scene played out on a given problem situation indicating actors, their social status, role behavior. In the form of sketches can be drawn small scenes that are related to the social spheres on the topics "Food", "Shopping", "the City and its attractions")

3. Socialization

a. line-up (students as soon as possible try to line up in a row in accordance with the proposed topic);

b. strip-story (each student gets the sentence and try to hold a place in the 9 "story");

c. smile (students are suitable to each other and with the obligatory smile

exchanging remarks);

d. merry-go-round (the students form the outer and inner circle and, moving in a circle, exchanging remarks);

e. contact (participants approach each other and begin the conversation);

f. kind words (students say any nice words addressed to the interlocutor);

g. reflection (participants try to imagine what they think about them by

other students);

h. listening (students listen carefully to the partner, nodding in agreement and expressing agreement with him);

In modern conditions it is naive to believe that full communion is possible only on the basis of the ability to operate with linguistic material. For a successful communication process requires a shared body of knowledge that students acquire by studying additional subjects of General education cycle. Russian language, literature, history, geography, music, biology, physics, the objects, the contents of which are to some extent reflected in the topic of the program is in a foreign language. Knowledge of the geography and history of the language obtained by the students for foreign language lessons are applied, in turn, on the lessons of geography, history, literature.

II Practical aspects of realization of methods and ways of formation of

communicative activities

2.2 Lesson plans

In the study, an experiment was conducted in classes with not in-depth study of a foreign language. To conduct the experimental work was chosen this type of experiment, as a comparative. We planned that in one group (control) work in the classroom generalizing the recurrence is conducted by a conventional method and the other group (experimental) with the use of methods and means of formation of communicative activities discussed in this paper.

The aim of this study is to conduct a synthesis of lessons of repetition in foreign language using the above methods and ways of formation of communicative activities and without using them to prove their advantages.

To achieve this goal it is necessary to solve a number of problems:

- observation of students, measuring their level of knowledge (if alignment is needed);

- lessons with and without the use identified in first part of methods and ways of formation of communicative activities;

- processing and systematization of results;

The level of basic knowledge of students is average. Discipline is low, this is due to the age and specifics of the lesson. For holding slices of pupils we have identified as a form of control test tasks aimed at the control of vocabulary on the topic, as the knowledge of vocabulary on the topic is the main indicator of development of themes, and also no small role in the choice of forms of control was the fact that the vocabulary control is carried out more objectively and precisely.

Thus, we designed the experiment plan:

1. The first cut – diagnose the state of the dependent variable at the initial stage (a

test on the subject).

2. Processing and systematization of obtained data.

3. The second cut (the use of methods of formation of communicative

competence).

4. Processing and systematization of obtained data.

5. The results from all slices, and presentation of results.

In order for the results of the experiment proved to be the most accurate and truthful, it was necessary to determine the level of knowledge on the latter topic in each group, to compare and, if necessary, to align. To do this, we carried out the first slice. It was a test cross of choice, the purpose of which was to check the vocabulary on the topic.

Test results:

Group experiment – quality – 67%

The control group quality – 58%

Next, we continued working on this topic and within it held a second slice. It was a lesson of the generalized recurrence in the experimental and control groups, with and without using above mentioned methods and ways of formation of communicative competence.

In the experimental group used such techniques as:

· strip-story (each student gets the sentence and try to hold a place in the "story";

· contact (participants approach each other and begin the conversation);

· line-up (students as soon as possible try to line up in a row in accordance with the proposed topic);

· knowledge gap (one student has information that is not available to another, and it needs to fill);

· sketches;

Respectively in the control group lesson generalizing repetition on this topic passed without using all of the above – in the traditional system (reading, translation, writing grammar exercises execution)

Test results:

Group experiment – 81%

The control group – 50%

2.3 Practical activities

Summarizing the obtained data was constructed a graph which reflects the percentage of the quality of experimental groups.

Blue - one group (experimental)

Violet - second group


From this result we can conclude that the average level of knowledge in the experimental group increased, and this fact in turn speaks about the effectiveness of these methods and ways of formation of communicative competence at foreign language lessons.

What is the reason of the efficiency of use of nonconventional methods of formation of communicative activities?

First, through the use of these methods is supported by positive attitude of the student towards himself, confidence in his abilities and friendly attitude towards others, changing the climate in the classroom, the atmosphere becomes more conducive for learning and for interpersonal communication.

Secondly, physical activity of students in the classroom contributes to a better mastering of the language material, relieve fatigue and increase motivation for learning.

Third, the rational alternation of activities helps to avoid lack of focus, fatigue. A variety of types of interaction in the classroom provides dynamic stereotype of behavior of students in the classroom and relieves fatigue, makes the lesson more emotional.

Conclusion

Now before education gets the difficult task of preparing the young man for life in a multicultural and linguistic environment, when you need not only the development of their national languages, but also an understanding of the originality of other languages. The education of youth in the spirit of respect for all peoples, the eradication of negative stereotypes of people of other nationalities is a task that requires adequate training of teachers working in the field of education and upbringing of children.

At the present stage of development of society has long been obvious that the term "education" as the process of bringing mental and spiritual appearance of the growing person we are cannot be limited. A holistic process of formation and development of personality, the acceptance of moral standards, and mastery of communication is impossible without education. Communicative education the same long process as education and other human qualities. In the process of exposure to different languages, in the process of acquiring communicative competence of the teacher and the disciple undergo several stages, the relationship between them is quite complex and dialectical. Such steps, in particular, we can take tolerance, understanding and acceptance of a foreign language, and ways of behaving in problematic communicative situations, knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. The essence of competence is determined by the compliance of the requirements established by the criteria and standards in their respective fields. Competence in language education is often associated with the notion of "communicative activity" that only partially reveals its essence.

Role of communication in the development of each individual is very great. Education the individual develops and grows in the course of interaction of the person with the languages of the community. The more varied and wider relations of personality with linguistic culture, the richer the perspectives of her individual education. And the main role in the organization of these relations for a long time belonged to schools and universities.

As opposed to a separate skill or skill that you can train, each by itself, the development of activities requires the inclusion of the whole complex of abilities and skills immediately.

Conceivably students ' acquisition of the totality of a vast palette of languages does not make them the subject of communication, despite the outward signs of education. Language is not passive in the process of mastering information, but in personal communication, i.e. in communication with the person as the bearer of a language.

Communicative activity is a human characteristic, his ability, which is evident in his behavior, activity, allowing him to solve situations (including communicative).

Bibliography

1. http://7b.edusite.ru/p38aa1.html

2. https://www.wikipedia.org/

3. www. dialog-ufa.net

4. http://iyazyki.prosv.ru/

5. Harmer, J. The practice of English language teaching

6. Northedge, A. The good study guide. – The Open University, 1990.

7. McDonough, J. and Show, C. Materials and Methods in ELT. – Heinemann, 1996.

8. Harmer, J. How to teach English.- Longman, 2001.

9. Ellis, G. and Sinclair, B. Learning to Learn English. – CUP,1989.

10. Baxter , A. Evaluating your Students. – Richmond Publishing, 1997.

Appendix

Источник: портал www.KazEdu.kz

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